[ ::resume:: ] [ ::contact:: ]
August 2003

I am a researcher at the School of Computing, University of Eastern Finland, and a principal investigator in an Academy of Finland funded project related to gaze in multiparty distant interaction. Since 2012 I am an adjunct professor (docent) of interactive technologies at UEF.

In 2011 I was a visiting scholar at the School of Information Sciences, University of Pittsburgh. In 2007-2010 I was an assistant professor at the University of Joensuu.

I am interested in human behavior, cognition, learning, and interaction with computerized systems in general. My particular interests lie in applying eye-tracking to study and support usability, thinking and interaction. In my PhD. work I investigated and used eye-movement recording as a measure of visual attention of computer programmers during program comprehension and debugging.

 Current 

 Past   Publications 

      Journals and Book Chapters



    1. Bednarik, R., Krohns, J.: User-centered design practice and adoption in smaller ICT companies in Eastern Finland: An Interview Study. International Journal of Business Information Systems, in press.

    2. Bednarik, R., Eivazi, S., Vrzakova, H.: A computational approach for prediction of problem-solving behavior using Support Vector Machines and eye-tracking data. In Eye Gaze in Intelligent User Interfaces - Gaze-based Analyses, Models, and Applications, Springer, pp. 111-134, 2013. ISBN 978-1-4471-4783-1. http://dx.doi.org/ 10.1007/978-1-4471-4784-8_7

    3. Bednarik, R., Gowases, T., Tukiainen, M.: Gaze-augmented interaction improves problem-solving: new evidence from verbal protocols. Behaviour & Information Technology 32 (8), 2013. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/0144929X.2012.659216

    4. Bednarik, R.: Expertise-dependent Visual Attention Strategies Develop Over Time During Debugging with Multiple Code Representations. International Journal of Human - Computer Studies 70 (2012), pp. 143-155. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijhcs.2011.09.003

    5. Ben-Ari, M., Bednarik, R., Ben-Bassat Levy, R., Ebel, G., Moreno, A., Myller, N., Sutinen, E.: A decade of research and development on program animation: The Jeliot experience. Journal of Visual Languages and Computing, 22, pp 375 - 384, 2011. doi:10.1016/j.jvlc.2 011.04.004

    6. Bednarik, R., Gowases, T., Tukiainen, M.: Gaze interaction enhances problem solving: Effects of dwell-time based, gaze-augmented, and mouse interaction on problem-solving strategies and user experience. Journal of Eye Movement Research, 3(1)3, 1-10, 2009. Available online: http://www.jemr.org/online/3/1/3

    7. Myller, N., Bednarik, R., Ben-Ari, M., Sutinen, E.: Extending the Engagement Taxonomy: Software Visualization and Collaborative Learning. ACM Transactions on Computing Education, 9(1), article 7, 2009.

    8. Randolph, J. J., & Bednarik, R.: Publication bias in the computer science education literature. Journal of Universal Computer Science, 14(4), 2008, pp. 575-589.

    9. Randolph, J. J., Rogers, P. C., Kakkonen, T., Myller, N., & Bednarik, R.: Emerging technologies for educational evaluation. In M. Ortiz & C. Rubio (Eds.) Educational Evaluation: 21st Century Issues and Challenges. Hauppauge, NY: Nova, 2009, pp. 417-442.

    10. Randolph, J.J., Julnes, G., Bednarik, R., & Sutinen, E.: A comparison of the methodological quality of articles in computer science education journals and conference proceedings. Computer Science Education, 17(4), 2007, pp. 263-274.

    11. Bednarik, R., Randolph, J.: Studying Cognitive Processes in Computer Program Comprehension. In Hammoud, R. I. (Ed): Passive Eye Monitoring: Algorithms, Applications and Experiments, Springer, ISBN 9783540754114, pp. 373-386, 2008.

    12. Bednarik, R., Moreno, A., Myller, N.: Program Visualization for Programming Education - Case of Jeliot 3. ACM NZ Bulletin, 2(2), ISSN 1176-9998, 2006. Avalailable online from http://is-alt.massey.ac.nz/acmnz/bulletin/vol2/issue2/

    13. Bednarik, R., Moreno, A., Myller, N.: Various Utilizations of an Open-Source Program Visualization Tool, Jeliot 3. Informatics in Education 5(2), 2006, pp. 195-206.

    14. Bednarik, R., Tukiainen, M.: Validating the Restricted Focus Viewer: A Study Using Eye-Movement Tracking. Behavior Research Methods, 39(2), 2007, pp. 274-282. Available online: http://brm.psychonomic-journals.org/content/39/2/274.full.pdf

    15. Bednarik, R., Myller, N., Sutinen, E., Tukiainen, M.: Analyzing Individual Differences in Program Comprehension. Technology, Instruction, Cognition and Learning (TICL), 3 (3-4), special issue on modeling and simulation, 2006, pp. 205-232.

      Books and Edited Proceedings

    16. Bednarik, R., Huang, H.-H., Nakano, Y., Jokinen, K.: GazeIn'13 -The 6th Workshop on Eye Gaze in Intelligent Human Machine Interaction. http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2522848.2535892, 2013, ACM.

    17. Bednarik, R.: Computer Science Days 2010, the proceedings of the conference Tietojenkasittelytieteen paivat 2010, in Publications of the University of Eastern Finland. Reports and Studies in Forestry and Natural Sciences, vol 2, 2010. ISBN 978-952-61-0130-9.

    18. Buckley, J., Rooksby, J., Bednarik, R.: Proceedings of the 20th Annual Workshop of the Psychology of Programming Interest Group (PPIG08). Lancaster, UK, 2008. Lancaster University, ISBN 978-1-86220-215-3.

    19. Sajaniemi, J., Tukiainen, M., Bednarik, R., Nevalainen, S.: Proceedings of the 19th Annual Workshop of the Psychology of Programming Interest Group (PPIG07). Joensuu, Finland, July, 2007. International Proceedings Series 7, University of Joensuu, Department of Computer Science and Statistics.

      International Conferences with Referee Procedure

    20. Jiang, X., Atkins, M. S., Tien, G., Bednarik, R., and Zheng, B.: Pupil Responses during Discrete Goal-directed Movements. To appear in CHI 2014. http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2556288.2557086. Best of CHI honorable mention.

    21. Jiang X., et al.: Pupil dilations during target-pointing respect Fitt's Law. Accepted to ETRA'14.

    22. Dao, C., Bednarik, R., Vrzakova, H.: Heatmap Rendering from Large-scale Distributed Datasets using Cloud Computing. Accepted to ETRA'14.

    23. Tien, J., Atkins, M. S., Jiang, X., Zheng, B., Bednarik, R.: Verbal gaze instruction matches visual gaze guidance in laparoscopic skills training. Accepted to ETRA'14.

    24. Busjahn, T., Bednarik, R., Schulte, C.: What influences dwell time during source code reading? Analysis of element type and frequency as factors Accepted to ETRA'14.

    25. Bednarik, R., Kauppinen, M.: Unravelling the Interaction Strategies and Gaze in Collaborative Learning with Online Video Lectures. In proceedings of GazeIn'13 -The 6th Workshop on Eye Gaze in Intelligent Human Machine Interaction, http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2535948.2535959, ACM, 20013.

    26. Vrzakova, H., Bednarik, R.: EyeCloud: Cloud Computing for Pervasive Eye-Tracking In the proceedings of PETMEI 2013, 3rd International Workshop on Pervasive Eye Tracking and Mobile Eye-Based Interaction, 2013. PDF

    27. Vrzakova, H., Bednarik, R.: That's not Norma(n/l)! A Detailed Analysis of Midas Touch in Gaze-based Problem-solving To appear in the proceedings of ACM CHI'13, 2013. PDF

    28. Mäkelä, S., Bednarik, R., Tukiainen, M.: Evaluating User Experience of Autistic Children through Video Observation. To appear in the proceedings of ACM CHI'13, 2013.

    29. Erkut, C., Bednarik, R., Mäkelä, S., Kleimola, J.: Apps for Me, Too: Gaze and Natural Interaction Applications for Varying Cognitive Strengths on a Multi-touch Table Network To appear in the proceedings of the Gaze Interaction in the Post-WIMP World Workshop, CHI'13, 2013.

    30. Vrzakova, H., Bednarik, R.: Fast and Comprehensive Extension to Intention Prediction from Gaze In the proceedings of UI2013 Second Workshop on Interacting with Smart Objects, 2013. PDF.

    31. Bednarik, R., Orlov, P.: Investigating the role of programmers' peripheral vision: a gaze-contingent tool and an experiment proposal. In the proceedings of Psychology of Programming Interest Group PPIG 2012. PDF.

    32. Wang, P., Bednarik, R., Moreno, A.: During automatic program animation, explanations after animations have greater impact than before animations. In Proceedings of the 12th Koli Calling International Conference on Computing Education Research, pp. 100-109, 2012 http://dx.doi.org/10.11 45/2401796.2401808

    33. Bednarik, R., Herout, A.: What Students Want: A Study on the Role of Supervisor of Final Works in Computing Education . In Proceedings of the 12th Koli Calling International Conference on Computing Education Research, pp. 118-125, 2012 http://dx.doi.org/10.11 45/2401796.2401811

    34. Bednarik, R., Eivazi, S., Hradis, M.: Gaze and Conversational Engagement in Multiparty Video Conversation: An annotation scheme and classification Gaze-In '12 Proceedings of the 4th Workshop on Eye Gaze in Intelligent Human Machine Interaction, Article 10, 2012. http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2401836.2401846

    35. Vrzakova, H., Bednarik, R.: Hard lessons learned: Mobile eye-tracking in cockpits Gaze-In '12 Proceedings of the 4th Workshop on Eye Gaze in Intelligent Human Machine Interaction, Article 7, 2012. http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2401836.2401843

    36. Bednarik, R., Shipilov, A.: Usability of gaze-transfer in collaborative programming: How and when could it work, and some implications for research agenda. In proceedings of DUET 2012, Dual Eye-Tracking in CSCW. PDF

    37. Bednarik, R., Vrzakova, H., Hradis, M.: What you want to do next: A novel approach for intent prediction in gaze-based interaction. In proceedings of ETRA'12, pp. 83-90. http://dx.doi.org/10.11 45/2168556.2168569 Best paper honorable mention.

    38. Hradis, M., Eivazi, S., Bednarik, R.: Voice activity detection in video mediated communication from gaze. In proceedings of ETRA'12, pp. 329-332. http://dx.doi.org/10.11 45/2168556.2168628

    39. Eivazi, S., Bednarik, R., Tukiainen, M., von und zu Fraunberg, M., Leinonen, V., Jääskeläinen J.: Gaze Behaviour of Expert and Novice Microneurosurgeons Differs During Observations of Tumor Removal Recordings. In proceedings of 2012 ACM ETRA'12, pp. 377-380. http://dx.doi.org/10.11 45/2168556.2168641

    40. Bednarik, R., Shipilov, A.: Gaze Cursor During Distant Collaborative Programming: A Preliminary Analysis. In the proceedings of DUET 2011: Dual Eye Tracking in CSCW, 2011. ECSCW 2011. PDF

    41. Gowases, T., Bednarik, R., Tukiainen, M.: Text highlighting improves user experience for reading with magnified displays. In the proceedings of Extended Abstracts of ACM CHI, pp. 1891-1896, 2011. http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/1979742.1979917

    42. Bednarik, R., Shipilov, A., Pietinen, S.: Bidirectional Gaze in Remote Computer Mediated Collaboration: Setup and Initial Results from Pair-Programming In the proceedings of the Computer Supported Cooperative Work, CSCW, ACM, pp. 597-600, 2011. http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/1958824.1958923

    43. Eivazi, S., Bednarik, R.: Predicting Problem-Solving Behavior and Performance Levels from Visual Attention Data In the proceedings of 2nd Workshop on Eye Gaze in Intelligent Human Machine Interaction at IUI 2011, pp 9-16, 2011. PDF

    44. Eivazi, S., Bednarik, R.: Inferring Problem Solving Strategies Using Eye-Tracking: System Description and Evaluation. Proceedings of the 10th Koli Calling International Conference on Computing Education Research. Koli Calling'10, New York, NY, USA, ACM, 2010, pp. 55-61, http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/1930464.1930472

    45. Malmi, L., Sheard, J., Simon, Bednarik, R., Helminen, J., Korhonen, A., Myller, N., Sorva, J., Taherkhani, A.: Characterizing research in computing education: a preliminary analysis of the literature. In the proceedings of ACM ICER 2010, pp. 3-12. http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1839594.1839597

    46. Pietinen, S., Bednarik, R. and Tukiainen, M.: Eye-tracking in Collaborative settings: Setup and Descriptive analysis. The 5th Scandinavian Workshop on Applied Eye-Tracking, SWAET 2010, Lund University, May 5-7 2010, p. 38.

    47. Pietinen, S., Bednarik, R., Tukiainen, M.: Shared Visual Attention in Collaborative Programming: A Descriptive Analysis. ACM/IEEE 32nd International Conference on Software Engineering, ICSE 2010, Cooperative and Human Aspects of Software Engineering, CHASE 2010, Workshop at the ICSE 2010, May 2nd 2010, Cape Town, South Africa.

    48. Kinnunen, T., Sedlak, F., Bednarik, R.: Towards Task-Independent Person Authentication Using Eye Movement Signals. In the Proceedings of the 2010 Symposium on Eye-Tracking Research & Applications, ETRA'10, ACM, pp. 187-190.

    49. Pietinen, S., Bednarik, R., Tukiainen, M.: An Exploration of Shared Visual Attention in Collaborative Programming. In Proceedings of the 21th Annual Workshop of the Psychology of Programming Interest Group (PPIG'09), Limerick, Ireland, pp. 134-135. Available online: http://www.ppig.org/papers/21st-pietinen.pdf

    50. Duveskog, M., Bednarik, R., Sutinen, R., Kemppainen, K.: Designing a Story-Based Platform for HIV/AIDS Counseling with Tanzanian Children. In Proceedings of the 8th ACM International Conference on Interaction Design and Children, pp. 27-35, 2009.

    51. Gowases, T., Bednarik, R., Tukiainen, M.: Gaze vs. Mouse in Games: The Effects on User Experience. In Proceedings of The 16th International Conference on Computers in Education, ICCE 2008, pp. 773 - 777.

    52. Nuutinen, J., Bednarik, R., Sutinen, E.: A Layered Approach to the Development Process of Social Mindtools. In Proceedings of ED-Media 2008, pp. 2109-2118.

    53. Bednarik, R., Tukiainen, M.: Temporal Eye-Tracking Data: Evolution of Debugging Strategies with Multiple Representations. In Proceedings of the 2008 Symposium on Eye Tracking Research & Applications (Savannah, Georgia, March 26 - 28, 2008). ETRA '08. ACM, New York, NY, pp. 99-102.

    54. Pietinen, S., Bednarik, R., Glotova, T., Tenhunen, V., Tukiainen M.: A Method to Study Visual Attention Aspects of Collaboration: Eye-Tracking Pair Programmers Simultaneously. In Proceedings of the 2008 Symposium on Eye Tracking Research & Applications (Savannah, Georgia, March 26 - 28, 2008). ETRA '08. ACM, New York, NY, pp. 39-42.

    55. Moreno, A., Sutinen, E., Bednarik, R. and Myller, N. (2007): Conflictive animations as engaging learning tools. In Proc. Seventh Baltic Sea Conference on Computing Education Research (Koli Calling 2007), Koli National Park, Finland. CRPIT, 88. Lister, R. and Simon, Eds., ACS. pp. 203-206.

    56. Bednarik, R., Tukiainen, M.: Analysing and Interpreting Quantitative Eye-Tracking Data in Studies of Programming: Phases of Debugging with Multiple Representations. In Proceedings of the 19th Annual Workshop of the Psychology of Programming Interest Group (PPIG'07), Joensuu, Finland, July 2-6, 2007, pp. 158-172.

    57. Myller, N., Bednarik, R., Moreno, A.: Integrating Dynamic Program Visualization into BlueJ: the Jeliot 3 extension. In proceedings of IEEE ICALT 2007, IEEE Computer Society, 2007, pp. 505-506.

    58. Moreno, A., Bednarik, R., Yudelson, M.: How to Adapt the Visualization of Programs? UM'2007 workshop 2, 11th International Conference on User Modeling: Personalisation in e-learning environments at individual and group level, PING'07. Corfu, Greece, June 25-29, 2007, pp. 65-70.

    59. Bednarik, R., Kamppuri, M., Tedre, M., Vesisenaho, M.: Alternative to Technology-Driven Development: An Approach Based on Authentic Needs. Presented at the Workshop on User Centred Design and International Development to be held on 28th April 2007, CHI2007.

    60. Kamppuri, M., Bednarik, R., Tukiainen, M.: The Expanding Focus of Design: Case Culture. In proceedings of NordiCHI 2006, The Fourth Nordic Conference on Human-Computer Interaction. Oslo, Norway, 2006, ACM Press, pp. 405-408.

    61. Bednarik, R., Myller, N., Sutinen, E., Tukiainen, M.: Program Visualisation: Comparing Eye-tracking Patterns with Comprehension Summaries and Performance. In proceedings of the 18th Annual Workshop of the Psychology of Programming Interest Group (PPIG'06), Brighton, UK, September 7-8, 2006, pp. 68-82.

    62. Myller, N., Bednarik, R.: Methodologies for Studies of Program Visualization. In proceedings of Methods, Materials and Tools for Programming Education (MMT2006), Tampere, Finland, May 4-5, 2006, pp. 37-42.

    63. Bednarik, R., Tukiainen, M.: An Eye-tracking Methodology for Characterizing Program Comprehension. In Proceedings the 2006 Symposium on Eye Tracking Research and Applications, ETRA 2006, March 27-29, San Diego, CA, USA, ACM Press, pp. 125 - 132.

    64. Randolph, J. J., Bednarik, R. and Myller, N.: A Methodological Review of the Articles Published in the Proceedings of Koli Calling 2001-2004. In Proceedings of Koli Calling 2005: 5th Annual Finnish / Baltic Sea Conference on Computer Science Education. November 17 - November 20, 2005, pp. 103-109.

    65. Moreno, A., Myller, N. and Bednarik, R.: Jeliot 3, an Extensible Tool for Program Visualization. In Proceedings of Koli Calling 2005: 5th Annual Finnish / Baltic Sea Conference on Computer Science Education. November 17 - November 20, 2005, pp. 183-184.

    66. Bednarik, R., Joy, M., Moreno, A., Myller, N., Sun, S., Sutinen, E.: Multi-Agent Educational System for Program Visualization. In proceedings of the International Conference on Intelligent Agents, Web Technology and Internet Commerce (IAWTIC'2005), 28 - 30 November 2005, Vienna, Austria, IEEE Computer Society, pp. 283 - 288.

    67. Bednarik, R., Myller, N., Sutinen, E., Tukiainen, M.: Applying Eye-Movement Tracking to Program Visualization. In proceedings of 2005 IEEE Symposium on Visual Languages and Human-Centric Computing (VL/HCC'05), Dallas, Texas, USA, September 21-24, 2005, IEEE Computer Society, pp. 302-304.

    68. Bednarik, R.: Potentials of Eye-Movement Tracking in Adaptive Systems. In the Proceedings of the Fourth Workshop on the Evaluation of Adaptive Systems, held in conjunction with the 10th International Conference on User Modeling (UM'05), Edinburgh, UK, July 24th to 30th, 2005, pp. 1-8.

    69. Bednarik, R., Myller, N., Sutinen, E., Tukiainen, M.: Effects of Experience on Gaze Behaviour during Program Animation. In proceedings of the 17th Annual Psychology of Programming Interest Group Workshop (PPIG'05), Brighton, UK, June 28 - July 1, 2005, pp. 49-61.

    70. Randolph, J. J., Bednarik, R., Silander, P., Gonzalez, J., Myller, N., and Sutinen, E.: A Critical Analysis of the Research Methodologies Reported in the Full Papers of the Proceedings of ICALT 2004. In proceedings of the 5th IEEE International Conference on Advanced Learning Technologies (ICALT 2005), Kaohsiung, Taiwan, July 5-8, 2005, IEEE Computer Society, pp. 10-14.

    71. Bednarik, R., Moreno, A., Myller, N., Sutinen, E.: Smart Program Visualization Technologies: Planning a Next Step. In proceedings of the 5th IEEE International Conference on Advanced Learning Technologies (ICALT 2005), Kaohsiung, Taiwan, July 5-8, 2005, IEEE Computer Society, pp. 717-721.

    72. Bednarik, R., Kinnunen, T., Mihaila, A., Fränti, P.: Eye-Movements as a Biometric. In Proceedings of the 14th Scandinavian Conference on Image Analysis, SCIA 2005, Joensuu, Finland, June 19-22, 2005. Lecture Notes in Computer Science, Vol. 3540, Springer, 2005, pp. 780-789.

    73. Bednarik, R., Tukiainen, M.: Effects of Display Blurring on the Behavior of Novices and Experts during Program Debugging. In CHI '05 extended abstracts on Human factors in computing systems, CHI 2005, Portland, Oregon, USA, April 2-7, 2005, ACM Press, pp. 1204-1207.

    74. Bednarik, R., Tukiainen, M.: Visual Attention Tracking During Program Debugging. In Proceedings of NordiCHI 2004, The Third Nordic Conference on Human-Computer Interaction, October 23-27, 2004, Tampere, Finland, ACM Press, pp. 331-334.

    75. Bednarik, R. & Tukiainen, M.: Visual Attention and Representation Switching in Java Program Debugging: A Study Using Eye Movement Tracking. In Proceedings of 16th Annual Psychology of Programming Interest Group Workshop (PPIG'04), Institute of Technology Carlow, Ireland, April 5-7, 2004, pp. 159-169.

    76. Bednarik, R., Fränti, P.: Survival of Students with Different Learning Preferences. The 4th Annual Finnish / Baltic Sea Conference on Computer Science Education, Koli, Finland, October 1-3, 2004, pp. 121-125.

    77. Bednarik, R., Gerdt, P., Miraftabi, R., Tukiainen, M.: Development of the TUP Model - Evaluating Educational Software. In Proceedings of the 4th IEEE International Conference on Advanced Learning Technologies (ICALT 2004), Joensuu, Finland, August 30 - September 1, 2004, IEEE Computer Society, pp. 699-701.

    78. Bednarik, R.: Problem-Based Learning in Teaching Theoretical Computer Science. In Proceedings of the International Conference on Engineering Education and Research Conference iCEER 2004, Olomouc, Czech Republic, June 27-30, 2004, pp. 801-807, CD-ROM.

      National Conferences with Referee Procedure

    79. Bednarik, R., Marjomaa E., La Russa, G.: Logical Variability in Tutors and Evaluators. In Proceedings of the ITK'04 Workshop on Educational Technology Research, April 20-22, Hämeenlinna, Finland, 2005. pp. 48-49.

      Tutorials and Technical Reports, Other Publications

    80. Bednarik, R., Kinnunnen, T., Eivazi, S., Sedlak, F., & Vrzakova, H.: Beyond AOIs: Classification and prediction methods in gaze data analysis in biometrics, problem solving, and interaction.. ECEM 2011.

    81. Kamppuri, M., Bednarik, R. and Juntunen, A.: Haasteena käytettävyys: Kotihoitoa tukevat etäpalvelut-hankkeen käytettävyystutkimus. [in Finnish, Usability as a challenge. Usability study of eHealth Services Supporting Home Care - project]. Kajaani University of Applied Sciences reports B, Raportteja ja selvityksiä 11, 2008, ss. 39, ISBN 978-952-9853-6, ISSN 1458-915X.

    82. Bednarik, R., Jansen, A.: Eye-tracking and its applications in studies of programming. In Proceedings of the 19th Annual Workshop of the Psychology of Programming Interest Group (PPIG'07), Joensuu, Finland, July 2-6, 2007, pp. 255.

      Monographs

    83. Bednarik, R.: Methods to analyze visual attention strategies: Applications in the studies of programming. PhD thesis, Department of Computer Science and Statistics, University of Joensuu, 2007. Available for download from: ftp://cs.joensuu.fi/pub/Dissertations/bednarik.pdf

    84. Bednarik, R.: Towards an Eye-tracking Methodology for Studies of Programming. PhLic thesis, Department of Computer Science, University of Joensuu, 2006.