A networking laboratory for the developing world

Bokhari, S.H.   Ahmed, M.   bin Sohail, S.   Khan, R.H.   Mirza, J.A.   Ali, M.  
UET, Lahore, Pakistan

This paper appears in: Communications Magazine, IEEE
Publication Date: Feb 2004
Volume: 42 , Issue: 2
On page(s): 106 - 113
ISSN: 0163-6804
INSPEC Accession Number:8018893
Digital Object Identifier: 10.1109/MCOM.2003.1267108
Posted online: 2004-08-16 14:27:33.0

Internet-based communication is assuming an increasingly important role in the developing world. It is thus crucial that students be exposed to contemporary networking equipment in a realistic setting, in order to connect theoretical material taught in lecture courses with the realities of physical hardware. To this end, a large computer networking laboratory has been set up to provide a realistic environment for teaching internetworking concepts. This laboratory provides university-level students with a testbed to experiment with fundamental issues of internetworking in a way that cannot be provided by simulators and to a degree of rigor not possible with the commonly available laboratory setups designed for technicians. We describe the motivations for setting up the laboratory, its network structure and equipment, and the type of experiments students conduct. The laboratory structure is influenced heavily by the limited funds at our disposal - a common problem in the developing world. Many of the problems we faced in setting up our equipment (such as the crucial impact of proper electrical grounding on system performance) are not ordinarily encountered in developed nations. Our experiences are thus likely to be of value to others in the developing world who are contemplating setting up experimental facilities for teaching networking.


A workable e-learning strategy for distance education in South Africa

Hendrik, F.   Serfontein, B.  
South Africa Univ., Pretoria, South Africa

This paper appears in: Advanced Learning Technologies, 2004. Proceedings. IEEE International Conference on
Publication Date: 30 Aug.-
1 Sept. 2004
On page(s): 943 - 947
Number of Pages: xxix+1106
INSPEC Accession Number:8477032
Digital Object Identifier: 10.1109/ICALT.2004.1357726
Posted online: 2004-11-22 07:25:25.0

E-learning is not yet happening on a large scale in distance education in
South Africa. Attempts at e-learning are sporadic and the result of individual rather than institutional efforts. This is partially caused by systemic and institutional constraints, as well as limitations faced by individuals and departments in distance education institutions. In the absence of an institutional strategy to implement e-learning, it is up to individuals and academic departments to put it into action. In this paper, attention is given to how the e-learning strategy of the Department of Economics at the University of South Africa is shaped by an interplay of factors, such as the Department's formal tuition model, the experience with and results of a pilot project, as well as accessibility issues.


Addressing digital divide issues in a partially online masters programme in Africa: the NetTel@Africa experience

Keats, D.W.   Beebe, M.A.  
Inf. & Commun. Services,
Western Cape Univ., Cape Town, South Africa

This paper appears in: Advanced Learning Technologies, 2004. Proceedings. IEEE International Conference on
Publication Date: 30 Aug.-
1 Sept. 2004
On page(s): 953 - 957
Number of Pages: xxix+1106
INSPEC Accession Number:8477033
Digital Object Identifier: 10.1109/ICALT.2004.1357728
Posted online: 2004-11-22 07:25:25.0

This paper explores how NetTel@Africa, a network for capacity building has addressed access, acceptance and delivery barriers in crafting an e-learning Masters degree programme. Building on network principles, one key success factor is to link open source software development, the KEWL project at the
University of Western Cape, with digital content development and collaborative learning initiatives. How the network survives will depend on whether tradition bound learners see the benefits of e-learning.


Africa Drive Project - innovative teacher development in South Africa

Kok, D.   Merz, C.  
Res., South Africa

This paper appears in: Advanced Learning Technologies, 2004. Proceedings. IEEE International Conference on
Publication Date: 30 Aug.-
1 Sept. 2004
On page(s): 958 - 962
Number of Pages: xxix+1106
INSPEC Accession Number:8477034
Digital Object Identifier: 10.1109/ICALT.2004.1357729
Posted online: 2004-11-22 07:25:25.0

The lack of suitably qualified mathematics and physical science educators in
South Africa impacts negatively on the availability of graduates leaving the education system to either enrol for higher education or to participate in the local and global economy. The Africa Drive Project is a research and development project aimed at developing, testing and implementing innovative teacher development programmes, methodologies and technologies. It is in line with the SA Government's thinking on ICT in Education. In-service educators (teachers) enrol for a formal Advanced Certificate in Education at a National Qualification Level (NQF) level 6. Blended learning, incorporating e-Learning, is delivered and facilitated at learning centres, established at secondary schools accessible to educators in the North West Province of South Africa. A customized commercial learning platform, in a hosted environment linked to the North West provincial communication backbone, is used to deliver and manage e-Learning at the learning centres.


New services and telecommunication technologies for rural application in Africa

Mneney, S.H.   Otieno, A.V.  
Dept. of Electr. & Electron.
Eng., Nairobi Univ., Kenya;

This paper appears in: AFRICON '92 Proceedings., 3rd AFRICON Conference
Publication Date: 22-24 Sept. 1992
On page(s): 287 - 290
Number of Pages: xxvi+654
Meeting Date:
09/22/1992 - 09/24/1992
Location: Ezulwini Valley
INSPEC Accession Number:4961816
Digital Object Identifier: 10.1109/AFRCON.1992.624475
Posted online: 2002-08-06 18:11:53.0

The authors investigate the options in technologies which countries in
Africa can assimilate to provide telecommunication services to the rural population. A survey of terrestrial radio systems including point-to-point, point-to-multipoint, and multiaccess technologies is presented. Some of these technologies are deployed in mobile communication. The option offered by satellite systems is also presented The telephone channel can be used to distribute audio-visual services which serve the special needs of the rural communities, particular in education


Asynch-NET: Footstep for Always-On e-Services in the Rural Areas of Developing Countries: Case Study-Tanzania

Greyson, K.   Kissaka, M.   Haule, D.   Ndume, V.  
University of Dar es Salaam

This paper appears in: Technology for Education in Developing Countries, 2006. Fourth IEEE International Workshop on
Publication Date: 10-12 July 2006
On page(s): 5 - 6
Digital Object Identifier: 10.1109/TEDC.2006.3
Posted online: 2006-07-24 08:54:15.0

The Asynchronous Network (
Asynch-NET) provided by Mobile Access Point (MAP) in the community of rural areas of developing countries has proved success in many regions of the developing countries. This asynchronous network is the footstep for e-services implementation in the communities with low-income and low population density. Basically, the cost of implementing a conventional "always-on" link in the rural areas of developing countries is very high that does not attract investors to put effort on. The paper presents a technique that is applied to the Asynch-NET framework so as to provide ‘the always-on’ e-services at the similar operating cost of Asynch-NET.


Bahaa´'i´ approach to the education in technology in Africa

Alastruey, C.F.  
Dept. of Electr. & Electron.,
Univ. of Basque Country, Bilbao, Spain;

This paper appears in: AFRICON '92 Proceedings., 3rd AFRICON Conference
Publication Date: 22-24 Sept. 1992
On page(s): 17 - 20
Number of Pages: xxvi+654
Meeting Date:
09/22/1992 - 09/24/1992
Location: Ezulwini Valley
INSPEC Accession Number:4928153
Digital Object Identifier: 10.1109/AFRCON.1992.624408
Posted online: 2002-08-06 18:11:52.0

The author considers the global principles and questions to be analyzed when one is studying how to implement education in technology on the African continent. The main sources are the Baha´'i´ teachings and some of the United Nations' statements of education, development, and literacy. The author introduces some of the experiences of the Baha´'i´ International Community in this field. He examines what the Baha´'i´ community considers, the essential elements of programs of technical education


Brain gain network: a proposal e-governance model to convert the brain drain into brain gain

Joarder, M.M.M.  
Dohatec New Media,
Dhaka, Bangladesh

This paper appears in: Multi Topic Conference, 2003. INMIC 2003. 7th International
Publication Date: 8-9 Dec. 2003
On page(s): 424 - 427
Number of Pages: x+497
INSPEC Accession Number:8315606
Digital Object Identifier: 10.1109/INMIC.2003.1416763
Posted online: 2005-04-11 09:55:00.0

It is observed that the scientists, engineers and the highly educated and qualified scholars of the developing countries are migrating to developed countries from their motherlands. They appear as human resources educated, trained through professional practice and employed in much better conditions than those the country of their origin could have provided to them. If such a country were able to use these resources largely shaped through others' investments, it would gain a lot. An e-governance model is presented to convert this brain drain into gain by tracking and maintaining these diversified brains of a developing country so that the migrated scholars get the opportunity to serve their motherland remaining remote from their country of origin. A governance policy is also proposed In this work, so that the government of a LDC (low developed country) can successfully and efficiently maintain this network to achieve maximum gain.


Broadband services provision in powerline communications of developing countries

Anatory, J.   Kissaka, M.M.   Mvungi, N.H.  
Fac. of Electr. & Comput. Syst.
Eng., Dar es Salaam Univ., Tanzania

This paper appears in: Power Line Communications and Its Applications, 2005 International Symposium on
Publication Date: 6-8 April 2005
On page(s): 376 - 380
Number of Pages: xii+426
INSPEC Accession Number:8478672
Digital Object Identifier: 10.1109/ISPLC.2005.1430534
Posted online: 2005-05-16 09:04:30.0

Recently it has been identified that powerline network is the promise cost effective for broadband accessibility compared to competitors technology. Since, powerline channel has been designed to provide electricity, using it for broadband communication various issues have to be addressed. These include channel characterization, noise, modulation to be used, coding etc. The topology of powerline network affects the transfer characteristics of the channel. In this paper, the powerline channel problems have been modeled for utilization by broadband access. In addition different techniques such as application of modulation, and coding have been addressed and the simulation results have been discussed.


Challenges for virtual universities

Cloete, E.  
Dept. of Comput. Sci. & Inf.
Syst., South Africa Univ., Pretoria, South Africa;

This paper appears in: Computer Software and Applications Conference, 2000. COMPSAC 2000. The 24th Annual International
Publication Date: 25-27 Oct. 2000
On page(s): 281 - 283
Number of Pages: xxvii+625
Meeting Date:
10/25/2000 - 10/27/2000
INSPEC Accession Number:6755714
Digital Object Identifier: 10.1109/CMPSAC.2000.884733
Posted online: 2002-08-06 23:36:39.0

Traditional universities can be categorised into residential and distance universities. There has, over the past few years, been a trend towards geographically dispersed organisations, away from hierarchical environments. In addition, economic demands require higher levels of education for meaningful employment. Thus, the customer demand for distance learning is growing. The availability of progressive technologies has given rise to new opportunities for distance learning. The result of this technological development is that traditional obstacles, such as adequate printing and despatch departments, are dwindling, and distance learning is becoming a competitive business. There is an urgency for many universities to incorporate virtual curricula into their formal programmes. This paper highlights some of the challenges that universities face when becoming virtual. In the pure sense, “virtual” implies the exclusion of all paper dealings


Computer self-efficacy, gender, and educational background in South Africa

Galpin, V.   Sanders, I.   Turner, H.   Venter, B.  
Sch. of Comput. Sci., Univ. of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa

This paper appears in: Technology and Society Magazine, IEEE
Publication Date: Fall 2003
Volume: 22 , Issue: 3
On page(s): 43 - 48
ISSN: 0278-0097
INSPEC Accession Number:7737539
Digital Object Identifier: 10.1109/MTAS.2003.1237471
Posted online: 2003-10-20 13:56:34.0

Research has demonstrated possible factors for low participation by women, including self-efficacy. This paper considers
computer self-efficacy and its relationship to gender and educational background. Self-efficacy is based on self-perception and is defined as the belief an individual has about their ability to perform a particular task. Self-efficacy is important as it influences the choice of activities by an individual, the amount of effort they will expend on a task and how long they will persevere in stressful situations to complete the task. Self-efficacy beliefs about computing may be a factor in whether people choose to get involved in computing. Therefore, self-efficacy is linked to participation rates and hence important to consider in our attempts to understand why people choose to become involved in information technology.



Designing educational technology for developing regions: some preliminary hypotheses

Kam, M.   Ramachandran, D.   Sahni, U.   Canny, J.  
California Univ., Berkeley, CA, USA

This paper appears in: Advanced Learning Technologies, 2005. ICALT 2005. Fifth IEEE International Conference on
Publication Date: 5-8 July 2005
On page(s): 968 - 972
Number of Pages: xxxvii+1063
INSPEC Accession Number:8642090
Digital Object Identifier: 10.1109/ICALT.2005.109
Posted online: 2005-09-19 10:50:05.0

Based on our findings from an ongoing pilot with shared computers in rural primary schools in
Uttar Pradesh, India since 2001 and two follow-up field studies in the same schools in 2004, we propose some principles for designing educational technology for developing countries as hypotheses. They include constructivist, small-group collaborative learning through digital storytelling and integrating paper- with computer-based practices. We also discuss the need to balance pedagogy, usability and mobility.


Developing engineers-some reflections on university education in developing countries

Zaky, A.A.  
Sultan Qaboos Univ.,

This paper appears in: IEE Review
Publication Date:
22 June 1989
Volume: 35 , Issue: 6
On page(s): 229 - 232
ISSN: 0953-5683
INSPEC Accession Number:3459389
Posted online: 2002-08-06 16:55:15.0

The engineering needs of developing countries are quite different from those of advanced, industrial economies, requiring a completely different approach to higher education in technology. The author discusses the role a university, should play in the education of engineers. Engineering requirements and the gap between industry and universities are discussed. The reasons for the large gap in developing countries are mentioned and the choice of a suitable curriculum, taking into account such factors as social background, practical work, and the needs of industry is discussed


Effect of Feedback during Lecture Style Delivery Both in a Face-to-Face Classroom & during a Distance Education Television Session in a Developing Country like Bangladesh without the Use of Internet

Islam, Y.M.   Rahman, Z.   Razzaq, S.S.   Sayed, Md.A.   Zaman, S.  
BRAC University,

This paper appears in: Advanced Learning Technologies, 2006. Sixth International Conference on
Publication Date: 05-07 July 2006
On page(s): 469 - 471
Posted online: 2006-07-24 08:55:29.0

Distance Education [1] lectures aired over national television without means of interactivity has had very little success in providing Open University style of education in a developing country like
Bangladesh. This paper explores some effects of providing feedback to students on their participation in a distance education scenario and in a normal face-to-face classroom situation. The techniques applied do not make use of Internet in rural regions and may be suitable for developing countries like Bangladesh.


Effect of poor designing of distribution system case study Tanzania electric supply company network

Kihwele, S.   Kyaruzi, A.L.  
Dept. of Electr. Power
Eng., Dar es Salaam Univ., Tanzania

This paper appears in: Power System Technology, 2004. PowerCon 2004. 2004 International Conference on
Publication Date: 21-24 Nov. 2004
Volume: 2
On page(s): 1298 - 1302 Vol.2
Number of Pages: 2 vol. (xx+2002)
INSPEC Accession Number:8456653
Posted online: 2005-07-05 08:26:54.0

The Tanzania Electric supply company (TANESCO) distribution feeder network has been analyzed by using the Simpow simulation software in which it has been found that there is a problem of overloading of distribution transformers and distribution lines as well as load phase imbalance. Recommendations on how to improve overloading of transformers and distribution lines have been suggested. The suggested method also reduces power loss in the feeder by 20 percent. Lastly the paper recommends that the loads should be redistributed equally to each phase to alleviate the unsymmetrical problems.


Ethnic dimensions of attitudes towards computers in developing societies: computer anxiety and PC involvement

Harris, R.   Davison, R.   Wong, A.   Splettstoesser, D.   Yeo, A.  
Malaysia Sarawak Univ., Malaysia;

This paper appears in: System Sciences, 1998., Proceedings of the Thirty-First Hawaii International Conference on
Publication Date: 6-9 Jan. 1998
Volume: 6
On page(s): 695 - 704 vol.6
Number of Pages: 7 vol. (xiv+689+ix+346+xi+470+xiv+581+xi+481+xiv+753+xvi+849)
Meeting Date: 01/06/1998 - 01/09/1998
Location: Kohala Coast, HI
INSPEC Accession Number:5850051
Digital Object Identifier: 10.1109/HICSS.1998.654832
Posted online: 2002-08-06 21:36:54.0

Information systems (ISs) are implemented within a social context made up of economic, political, cultural and behavioural factors which differ greatly between societies. Failure to account for such differences can inhibit information technology (IT) adoption. The social contexts of developing countries differ from each other and from those of developed nations. To illustrate some of the behavioural differences between developing societies which contribute to the social context of IS implementations, this study examined the computer anxiety and involvement with personal computers (PCs) of six groups of computer-using students from
China, Hong Kong, Malaysia, New Zealand, Tanzania and Thailand. Differences were found to exist between the computer anxiety of some of the groups but they were probably attributable to demographic factors. Differences were found to exist between the PC involvement of some of the groups which could be attributed to ethnic factors. Implications for research and practice are drawn


ICT education for development based on the DSV model

Candia, R.   Ekenberg, L.   Popov, O.  
Dept. of Comput. & Syst. Sci., Stockholm Univ., Sweden

This paper appears in: Information Technology Interfaces, 2003. ITI 2003. Proceedings of the 25th International Conference on
Publication Date: 16-19 June 2003
On page(s): 341 - 345
Number of Pages: xxv+686
ISSN: 1330-1012
INSPEC Accession Number:7854354
Posted online: 2003-09-04 14:15:05.0

Information and communication technology (ICT) is one of the premier factors in the progress of the contemporary society. Albeit, its rewarding benefits and far reaching consequences have only widened the division between the developed and developing nations. We explore the major objectives of ICT education for the diffusion of knowledge in the developing world as one of the means to narrow the digital division, and the experience and the best practices based on the so called DSV model, conceived in the Department of Computer and Systems Sciences (DSV) at Stockholm University (SU).


ICT development in Mauritius

Soyjaudah, K.M.S.   Oolun, M.K.   Jahmeerbacus, I.   Govinda, S.  
Fac. of Eng., Univ. of
Mauritius, Reduit, Mauritius

This paper appears in: Africon Conference in Africa, 2002. IEEE AFRICON. 6th
Publication Date: 2-4 Oct. 2002
Volume: 1
On page(s): 53 - 58 vol.1
Number of Pages: 2 vol.(xviii+xiv+971)
INSPEC Accession Number:7677589
Posted online: 2003-01-06 15:16:43.0

Mauritius has evolved from a low-income mono-crop economy at independence to a middle-economy income today, it still faces a number of threats mainly from low cost competitor countries. To remain competitive in the world market and to transform Mauritius into a regional hub and to make it an IT exploiter and exporter government is giving high priority to the development of the ICT sector. It aims at making ICT the fifth pillar of the Mauritian economy. In this country report the strategies being adopted to set up e-government and e-education and training and to foster the development of the Cybercity are presented.


State of ICT security management in the institutions of higher learning in developing countries: Tanzania case study

Bakari, J.K.   Tarimo, C.N.   Yngstrom, L.   Magnusson, C.  
Dept. of Comput. & Syst. Sci., Stockholm Univ./R. Inst. of Technol.,
Kista, Sweden

This paper appears in: Advanced Learning Technologies, 2005. ICALT 2005. Fifth IEEE International Conference on
Publication Date: 5-8 July 2005
On page(s): 1007 - 1011
Number of Pages: xxxvii+1063
INSPEC Accession Number:8642099
Digital Object Identifier: 10.1109/ICALT.2005.243
Posted online: 2005-09-19 10:50:05.0

Information and communication technology (ICT) is of strategic importance and essential functional requirements for many institutions of higher learning. In the developing world, ICT is achieving a breakthrough in management and teaching of online learning, which helps to cater for the increased student population. However the security of the information being processed, stored and exchanged is a growing concern to the management as the dependence on ICT for most of the institutions' core services functions is increasing. This paper discusses the current
state of ICT security management practices in three institutions of higher learning in Tanzania. The discussion includes the problems and consequences of ICT risks.


Improving access to higher education in South Africa

van Harmelen, T.   Pistorius, C.W.I.  
Inst. of Technol. Innovation, Pretoria Univ., South Africa;

This paper appears in: Technology and Society Magazine, IEEE
Publication Date: Spring 1998
Volume: 17 , Issue: 1
On page(s): 16 - 22
ISSN: 0278-0097
INSPEC Accession Number:5890884
Digital Object Identifier: 10.1109/44.663850
Posted online: 2002-08-06 21:35:56.0

In the future, technology will have an increasingly critical impact on the way educational institutions present their services. In
South Africa, the challenge in higher education is to redress past inequalities and to restructure the educational system to rise to the challenges of a modern country that can be competitive in the 21st Century. Technological developments must therefore be used as multipliers to solve the escalating pressures by increased access, equity, redress and quality in education. While technology can fulfil a significant role, we propose that, give current levels of infrastructure development, the introduction of technology will increase the gap between developed and underdeveloped communities and should therefore rather be utilized to free up available educational resources


Invisible Africa: information traffic patterns as illustrated by technical training, the Internet, African mail systems, Baywatch, and books

Wresch, W.  
Wisconsin Univ., Oshkosh, WI, USA ;

This paper appears in: Technology and Society, 1998. ISTAS 98. Wiring the World: The Impact of Information Technology on Society., Proceedings of the 1998 International Symposium on
Publication Date: 12-13 June 1998
On page(s): 1 - 6
Number of Pages: vi+176
Meeting Date:
06/12/1998 - 06/13/1998
South Bend, IN
INSPEC Accession Number:6011324
Digital Object Identifier: 10.1109/ISTAS.1998.688138
Posted online: 2002-08-06 21:46:42.0

While serious efforts are underway to improve the information infrastructure of the developing world, major shortcomings in information flow continue to make much of
Africa invisible to the rest of the world, and invisible to itself. Whether it is where managers go for technical training, the fight for reliable phone lines, old patterns of mail delivery, new patterns of television broadcasting (e.g. cheap shows such as Baywatch), or the daily struggles to publish basic books, information flows are reduced or totally eliminated by a combination of economic and technical forces. The Internet creates significant opportunities for improvements in information flow, but it should be seen as just one of many information flows. It will not be enough to suddenly make Africa visible to the rest of the world


KLAMP an Integrated Open Source Platform for Internet and Mobile Applications

Mwakabaga, T.   Dwolatzky, B.  
University of the
Witwatersrand Johannesburg, South Africa

This paper appears in: Technology for Education in Developing Countries, 2006. Fourth IEEE International Workshop on
Publication Date: 10-12 July 2006
On page(s): 51 - 52
Digital Object Identifier: 10.1109/TEDC.2006.21
Posted online: 2006-07-24 08:54:16.0

In this era of converged Information and Communication Technologies (ICT), one major challenge in using modern technologies to disseminate information generated from the local content is the lack of understanding the technologies and unavailability of appropriate tools that can be used to understand the technology in creating not only Internet applications but also mobile applications. Open Source Software has brought a much cheaper and easier path to accessing various tools that can be used for learning, and teaching. This paper presents hands on experience of open source tools that can be used to grasp the technologies in the ICT. The integrated architecture referred to as KLAMP, is a combination of tools and gateway that enable Internet and mobile applications to be easily developed. It is not only suitable as a wireless and mobile learning platform but also can be used for large scale projects.


Language technology solutions in Simputer: an overview

Bali, K.   Hariharan, R.   Manohar, S.   Vinay, V.   Vivek, K.S.  
Picopeta Simputers Pvt. Ltd., Bangalore, India

This paper appears in: Language Engineering Conference, 2002. Proceedings
Publication Date: 13-15 Dec. 2002
On page(s): 189 - 196
Number of Pages: xii+211
INSPEC Accession Number:7691799
Posted online: 2003-02-28 18:16:20.0

Simputer is a low-cost multilingual, mass access handheld device that uses Indian language user interfaces to provide information technology based services to the multilingual population of
India. We discuss the language technology components of Simputer that help realize this experience. The architecture and detailed working of multilingual text rendering and display as well as multilingual text-to-speech systems, in particular the IML browser and Dhvani ITS engine, deployed in the Simputer are outlined.


Linux and the developing world

Bokhari, S.H.   Rehman, R.  
Univ. of Eng. & Technol., Lahore, Pakistan;

This paper appears in: Software, IEEE
Publication Date: Jan.-Feb. 1999
Volume: 16 , Issue: 1
On page(s): 58 - 64
ISSN: 0740-7459
INSPEC Accession Number:6164543
Digital Object Identifier: 10.1109/52.744570
Posted online: 2002-08-06 22:54:35.0

The impact of
Linux on the developing world is, in many ways, even greater than on industrialized nations. The authors have used Linux productively in Pakistan in both academia and industry; here they detail what they learned in setting up an 84-seat Linux lab for undergraduate teaching, and how an ISP provider in Pakistan is using Linux to improve its services



Low-cost handheld simputer

Murray, S.  

This paper appears in: Pervasive Computing, IEEE
Publication Date: April-June 2002
Volume: 1 , Issue: 2
On page(s): 5 - 5
ISSN: 1536-1268
Digital Object Identifier: 10.1109/MPRV.2002.1012330
Posted online: 2002-08-07 00:50:59.0


Using mobile phones for secure, distributed document processing in the developing world

Parikh, T.S.  
Dept. of Comput. Sci.,
Washington Univ., St. Louis, MO, USA

This paper appears in: Pervasive Computing, IEEE
Publication Date: Jan.-March 2005
Volume: 4 , Issue: 2
On page(s): 74 - 81
ISSN: 1536-1268
INSPEC Accession Number:8431987
Digital Object Identifier: 10.1109/MPRV.2005.43
Posted online: 2005-05-09 09:48:00.0

Paper plays an essential role in many information ecologies in the developing world, but it can be inefficient and inflexible. We've developed an information services architecture that uses a smart phone equipped with a built-in digital camera to process augmented paper documents. The
CAM document-processing framework exploits smart mobile phones' utility, usability, and growing ubiquity to link paper with modern information tools. CAM, so called because the phone's camera plays a key role in the user interface, is a three-tiered, document-based architecture for providing remote rural information services. The CAM framework comprises four components: CamForms, CamShell, CamBrowser, and CamServer.


Old dogs and new e-tricks: staff development in a South African tertiary institution

Lautenbach, G.   van der Westhuizen, D.  
Dept. of Curriculum Studies, Rand Afrikaans Univ.,
Johannesburg, South Africa

This paper appears in: Computers in Education, 2002. Proceedings. International Conference on
Publication Date: 3-6 Dec. 2002
On page(s): 1348 - 1349 vol.2
Number of Pages: 2 vol.xliii+1580
INSPEC Accession Number:7679119
Posted online: 2003-03-20 11:23:28.0

This paper reports on a study in progress at RAU University (RAU) in
Johannesburg, South Africa. Participants in the study are online lecturers at RAU who consider themselves to be experienced face-to-face instructors. Since 1998, progressive updates of WebCT/sup /spl trade// have been implemented at RAU to support a growing number of instructors embracing the new multimodal approach to teaching. In many cases, being able to use the available technologies has become a necessity rather than a matter of choice, but even though technology has found general acceptance at RAU, change has come slowly. This study identifies the central role that staff (faculty) can play in this process of change through a process of action research. This process cannot be seen as a top down process, but rather a complex one in which the online instructor is very active. Initial findings have identified that higher education technology strategies ignore the central role that staff (faculty) can play in the change process.


Open Courseware as a Tool for Teaching and Learning in Africa

Sanga, C.   Lwoga, E.T.   Venter, I.M.  
University of the Western Cape, Private Bag, South Africa

This paper appears in: Technology for Education in Developing Countries, 2006. Fourth IEEE International Workshop on
Publication Date: 10-12 July 2006
On page(s): 55 - 56
Digital Object Identifier: 10.1109/TEDC.2006.23
Posted online: 2006-07-24 08:54:16.0

Open Source Software (OSS) shows great promise for future technological innovation and application especially in the area of teaching and learning in
Africa. It provides readily available software such as learning management systems (LMS) and learning content management systems (LCMs). Higher Learning Institutions (HLI) in developing countries can benefit from these OSS initiatives. This paper, based on two case studies (The University of the Western Cape (UWC) in South Africa and the University of Dar es Salaam (UDSM) in Tanzania), discusses the application of OSS in teaching and learning and reflects on why the adoption of Open Courseware (OC) by HLI in Africa is very slow. The UWC Free Software Innovation Unit was visited and information was collected from the websites of both UWC and UDSM. It is anticipated that the findings of the study will be of interest to all stakeholders in the education sector in Africa. It will be useful when planning cost-effective and efficient technology implementation at district level and at national level specifically in Tanzania.


Tapping ICT to reduce poverty in rural India

Cecchini, S.  
ECLAC, United Nations,
Santiago, Chile

This paper appears in: Technology and Society Magazine, IEEE
Publication Date: Summer 2003
Volume: 22 , Issue: 2
On page(s): 20 - 27
ISSN: 0278-0097
INSPEC Accession Number:7653913
Digital Object Identifier: 10.1109/MTAS.2003.1216239
Posted online: 2003-07-28 14:36:43.0

The paper considers how information and communication technologies can enhance poor people's opportunities by improving access to markets, health and education. It considers ICT projects for poverty reduction in rural


Program in engineering for developing communtnes viewing the developing world as the classroom of the 21 /sup st/ century

Amadei, B.  
University of Colorado

This paper appears in: Frontiers in Education, 2003. FIE 2003. 33rd Annual
Publication Date: 5-8 Nov. 2003
Volume: 2
On page(s): F3B_1 - F3B_6
Number of Pages: 2300
ISSN: 0190-5848
Digital Object Identifier: 10.1109/FIE.2003.1264725
Posted online: 2004-02-19 17:01:16.0


SA children take a SUN-STEP to engineering

Myburgh, M.   Schoonwinkel, A.  
Dept. of Electron.
Eng., Stellenbosch Univ., South Africa;

This paper appears in: AFRICON, 1999 IEEE
Publication Date: 28 Sept.-
1 Oct. 1999
Volume: 2
On page(s): 1215 - 1218 vol.2
Number of Pages: 2 vol.(xx+xiv+1252)
Meeting Date:
09/28/1999 - 10/01/1999
Cape Town
INSPEC Accession Number:6514029
Digital Object Identifier: 10.1109/AFRCON.1999.821953
Posted online: 2002-08-06 22:53:36.0

The MTN-SUNSTEP programme reaches out to disadvantaged children and increases their science, electronics and technology awareness. It also reinforces the fact that electronics offer career opportunities and that mathematics and science are crucial high school subjects


Satellites and developing countries

Chasia, H.  
Int. Telecommun.
Union, Geneva, Switzerland;

This paper appears in: Communications Magazine, IEEE
Publication Date: Sept. 1995
Volume: 33 , Issue: 9
On page(s): 110 - 112
ISSN: 0163-6804
INSPEC Accession Number:5068834
Digital Object Identifier: 10.1109/35.408434
Posted online: 2002-08-06 19:45:54.0

developing countries use satellite technology for international rather than for domestic communication. In the future, there should be substantially increased domestic and regional use of satellite technology. The potential exists in this application for enormous increases in traffic, and the impact on developing countries' economies will be the greatest. In addition to the international links, several developing countries also employed INTELSAT capacity to establish domestic public telecommunication networks. Generally, these early domestic networks were set up in special situations where difficult terrain, climatic conditions, or territories separated by large bodies of water, made conventional telecommunications impossible. Subsequently, a number of these developing countries, including India, Indonesia, Brazil, and Mexico, launched their own satellites to connect these networks


School-level ICT Adoption Factors in the Western Cape Schools

Miller, L.   Naidoo, M.   van Belle, J.-P.   Chigona, W.  
University of Cape Town, South Africa

This paper appears in: Technology for Education in Developing Countries, 2006. Fourth IEEE International Workshop on
Publication Date: 10-12 July 2006
On page(s): 57 - 61
Digital Object Identifier: 10.1109/TEDC.2006.24
Posted online: 2006-07-24 08:54:16.0

The ramifications of using Information and Communication Technology (ICT) in education may be the answer to alleviating the educational crisis that
South Africa is experiencing. However, the factors that will create a high level of adoption of ICTs in the country’s schools haven’t been studied, making research in this area vital for project success and sustainability. This project attempts to identify the critical success factors related to ICT interventions in Western Cape schools. In this study the Theory of Planned Behaviour model is used to gain an understanding of decision making processes with regard to ICT use in education. Analysis of the data reveals at school level adoption is affected by availability and accessibility of ICT resources, efficiency of technical support and the influence (attitude) of education leaders.


Social challenges of using computers to teach socially disadvantaged groups in the new South Africa

Ng'ambi, D.  
Univ. of Cape Town, South Africa

This paper appears in: Computers in Education, 2002. Proceedings. International Conference on
Publication Date: 3-6 Dec. 2002
On page(s): 483 - 484 vol.1
Number of Pages: 2 vol.xliii+1580
INSPEC Accession Number:7625225
Digital Object Identifier: 10.1109/CIE.2002.1185984
Posted online: 2003-03-20 11:23:41.0

In this paper we describe the
social challenges of using computers to teach socially disadvantaged groups in the new South Africa. The majority of people from low socio-economic backgrounds are Africans. There is evidence that these learners perceive good education as a redress to their plight. As a result of this perception, students from historically disadvantaged social groups are in large and increasing numbers entering institutions characterised as 'historically advantaged'. Be that as it may, these numbers are insignificantly small and are more likely to drop out. This paper reports on the state of the educational system for previously disadvantaged social groups, why the theme of this conference "learning communities on the Internet" remains a pipe dream for these social groups and how the Multimedia Education Group at the University of Cape Town is responding to the challenge through computer-based interventions.


Design and Development of an User Agent for Streaming Lectures — A South African Case Study

Mpofu, N.   Terzoli, A.   Muyingi, H.   Rao, G.S.V.R.K.  
Telkom Centre of Excellence in Developmental e-Commerce, Computer Science Department, University of Fort Hare,
Alice, South Africa, Email: nmpofu@ufh.ac.za

This paper appears in: Advanced Communication Technology, 2006. ICACT 2006. The 8th International Conference
Publication Date: 20-22 Feb. 2006
Volume: 1
On page(s): 553 - 555
Number of Pages: CD-ROM
Posted online: 2006-05-08 09:29:00.0

The Internet today is recognized as the network that is fundamentally changing social, political and economic structures. Its ability to transcend geographic borders and limitations makes it one of the greatest equalizers this civilization has seen. In this paper we discuss research that takes advantage of the robustness of the Internet by developing a SIP based VoIP application that will be used as an interaction tool for rural learners receiving streaming lectures via the Internet. We use open source and standards based software in developing this application.


Striving towards international academic and e-learning collaboration: an evaluation of a South African experience

Jordaan, D.  
Dept. of Telematic Learning & Educ. Innovation,
Pretoria Univ., South Africa

This paper appears in: Advanced Learning Technologies, 2004. Proceedings. IEEE International Conference on
Publication Date: 30 Aug.-
1 Sept. 2004
On page(s): 1024 - 1028
Number of Pages: xxix+1106
INSPEC Accession Number:8469899
Digital Object Identifier: 10.1109/ICALT.2004.1357742
Posted online: 2004-11-22 07:25:25.0

The impact of any international academic or e-learning collaboration is immense and the possibilities endless for all involved. The success of such collaboration rests solely on the shoulders of the partners involved. Continuous evaluation of an international project contributes to its success. The context of this paper is the involvement of the
University of Pretoria (South Africa) in a specific funded Scholarship programme and Partnership development project with Imperial College London (UK). This paper reflects on and evaluates the activities of the funded project using a set of guidelines from the draft code of Conduct for Cross Border/Transnational Delivery of Higher Education Programmes. The results from this evaluation may be seen as a preliminary indication of the future of the project and an indication of international collaboration possibilities for South African higher education institutions.


Supporting higher education through electronic meeting support in Tanzania

de Vreede, G.-J.   Mgaya, R.J.S.  
Delft Univ. of Technol., Netherlands

This paper appears in: System Sciences, 2001. Proceedings of the 34th Annual Hawaii International Conference on
Publication Date:
Jan 3-6 2001
On page(s): 10 pp.
Number of Pages: CD-ROM
INSPEC Accession Number:6853606
Posted online: 2002-08-07 00:27:04.0

To learn, a person has to be able to communicate effectively with others about the knowledge to be learned. Communication processes in classrooms can be supported by group support systems (GSS) that enable students to communicate anonymously and in parallel. GSS experiences suggest that the technology increases observed learning, self-reported learning, on-task participation, and satisfaction with the learning experience. This paper discusses case studies from higher education in
Tanzania. The particular benefit of GSS in this environment was threefold: first, it encouraged meaningful interaction among students and between students and teachers. Local culture normally hinders this. Second, it allowed all participants to freely discuss sensitive topics. Finally, it exposed students to collaborative technologies that are expected to play a pivotal role in (global) collaborative development activities.


Technology as a Tool for Fighting Poverty: How Culture in the Developing World Affect the Security of Information Systems

Chaula, J.A.   Yngstrom, L.   Kowalski, S.  
Stockholm University &
University of Land and Architectural Studies

This paper appears in: Technology for Education in Developing Countries, 2006. Fourth IEEE International Workshop on
Publication Date: 10-12 July 2006
On page(s): 66 - 70
Digital Object Identifier: 10.1109/TEDC.2006.27
Posted online: 2006-07-24 08:54:16.0

Many developing nations are looking to IT infrastructure investments as means to reach sustainable economic growth. They strive to automate various processes in anticipation to improve production and quality of service to meet millennium development goals and cope with globalization needs. This has led to the automation of critical systems. It is therefore imperative that the security of such critical systems is one of the central issues to be addressed as developing nations plan, acquire and use information systems. The purpose of this paper is to examine the role of culture in systems security problems. We argue that insecure systems undermine economic growth and that culture defines how people plan, acquire and use information systems in a secure way. We also present some findings of culture evaluation case study that was carried out in
Tanzania to determine the role of culture in the process of securing electricity power utility systems.


Technology education for development

Beute, N.  
Fac. of
Eng., Cape Technikon, Cape Town, South Africa;

This paper appears in: AFRICON '92 Proceedings., 3rd AFRICON Conference
Publication Date: 22-24 Sept. 1992
On page(s): 251 - 254
Number of Pages: xxvi+654
Meeting Date:
09/22/1992 - 09/24/1992
Location: Ezulwini Valley
INSPEC Accession Number:4961807
Digital Object Identifier: 10.1109/AFRCON.1992.624466
Posted online: 2002-08-06 18:11:51.0

It is noted that economic development is a prerequisite for stability in
South Africa. Highly skilled technological manpower, innovation, and entrepreneurship are required for South Africa to develop economically. It is concluded that urgent attention must be given to education and manpower development, so that South Africa industry can be successful in the international market. South Africa has an acute shortage of highly skilled manpower. Special efforts are required to enlarge the South African engineering team by drawing more students to the field of engineering. Ways of attracting more students to the engineering profession are examined


Technology for education in developing countries-a forward

Jaimes, A.   Kinshuk   Sow, D.  
Dept. of Electr.
Eng., Columbia Univ., New York, NY, USA

This paper appears in: Information Technology: Research and Education, 2003. Proceedings. ITRE2003. International Conference on
Publication Date: 11-13 Aug. 2003
On page(s): 473 - 474
Number of Pages: 649
INSPEC Accession Number:8044960
Digital Object Identifier: 10.1109/ITRE.2003.1270662
Posted online: 2004-03-08 14:00:59.0

Technology plays a very important role in education. In developing countries, conditions, constraints, and resources differ sharply from industrialized nations, creating special challenges for the technical and educational research communities. This first international workshop emerged from the need to further research in technology as it applies to education in developing countries by setting a stage for exchange of original research ideas. We set the background for this workshop by describing its motivation, by presenting topics of interest, by describing the contents of the workshop, and by concluding with future directions.


Telecommunications development in Tanzania

Kiula, N.  
Minist. of Works, Commun. & Transp.,
Dar es Salaam, Tanzania;

This paper appears in: Communications Magazine, IEEE
Publication Date: Nov. 1994
Volume: 32 , Issue: 11
On page(s): 36 - 37
ISSN: 0163-6804
INSPEC Accession Number:4820865
Digital Object Identifier: 10.1109/35.330220
Posted online: 2002-08-06 19:39:08.0

Although the network in
Tanzania is still small and in poor condition, progress has been made since the publication of the Missing Link Report in 1984. Despite daunting social and economic obstacles, the country has set a goal of one telephone per hundred people by the year 2000. To accelerate the improvements necessary in the telecommunication sector in Tanzania, the government restructured the sector under the 1993 Parliamentary Acts which, among other things, sought to: limit the government's role in setting sector policy on telecommunications; and establish an independent regulatory body to regulate operator(s) and administer government sector policy


Africa calling [African wireless connection]

Mbarika, V.W.A.   Mbarika, I.  

This paper appears in: Spectrum, IEEE
Publication Date: May 2006
Volume: 43 , Issue: 5
On page(s): 56 - 60
ISSN: 0018-9235
INSPEC Accession Number:8918460
Digital Object Identifier: 10.1109/MSPEC.2006.1628825
Posted online: 2006-05-08 09:28:01.0

It might come as a surprise that sub-Saharan
Africa is now the world's fastest growing wireless market. The rate of growth for the entire continent has been more than 58% per year, compared with the almost 22% annual growth rate in America. This development is primarily attributed to the fact that Africa's landline networks and institutions are inadequate and that growing political stability has begun to attract more foreign investments to the region. Notwithstanding the substantial increase in complementary service jobs brought about by the wireless boom, the African government is urged to provide basic financial management training programs for vendors, especially kiosk owners who need help to look beyond their immediate financial gains to a sustainable future. African regulators are also urged to develop strategies to promote local investments in the wireless arena, as well as in other telecommunications sector.


Approaching subSaharan Africa's educational dilemma with teleeducation

Mbarika, V.W.A.  
Dept. of Inf. Syst. & Decision Sci., Louisiana State Univ., Baton Rouge, LA, USA

This paper appears in: Technology and Society Magazine, IEEE
Publication Date: Winter 2003-2004
Volume: 22 , Issue: 4
On page(s): 20 - 26
ISSN: 0278-0097
INSPEC Accession Number:7908913
Digital Object Identifier: 10.1109/MTAS.2004.1251383
Posted online: 2004-08-02 08:44:26.0

The continent of
Africa in general, and subSaharan Africa (SSA) in particular, has been almost forgotten in mainstream academic research in computer and information technologies. While there are many reasons that SSA lags behind the rest of the world in terms of Internet technologies and other socio-economic factors, one factor that stands out is the continent's lack of sound education. A strong approach to addressing the problem of sound education is implementation of tele-education projects. Tele-education involves the use of educational (especially Internet-based) technologies to connect geographically dispersed teachers and students.


Teledensity technological growth strategy for Africa's LDCs: 'viagra' development strategy or sustainable development strategy?-The African telecommunications stakeholders speak

Mbarika, V.W.   McMullen, P.R.   Warren, J.  
Auburn Univ., AL, USA

This paper appears in: System Sciences, 2001. Proceedings of the 34th Annual Hawaii International Conference on
Publication Date:
Jan 3-6 2001
On page(s): 10 pp.
Number of Pages: CD-ROM
INSPEC Accession Number:6859336
Posted online: 2002-08-07 00:26:52.0

Over-dependence of African countries on the West has been reflected in various socioeconomic dimensions. Such dependence has also been reflected in the telecommunications industry of
Africa's LDCs in a bid to solve its low teledensity (number of main telephone lines per one hundred inhabitants) problems. African LDCs are greatly behind other regions of the world in utilizing information and telecommunications technologies, which in turn, has repercussions such as the great digital divide that leaves African LDCs far behind other regions of the world. Various technological-oriented obstacles account for the low levels of teledensity in these countries. This therefore calls for a debate on what strategies can be adopted to solve this problem: use the 'viagra' approach by totally depending on the West to come in for a short term, vigorously solve the problem, and leave thereafter an infrastructure with nobody to manage it, or use a self-sufficiency approach and an African Foreign Alliance approach to solve the technological-oriented obstacles. Therefore use of the term 'viagra' in this context is to imply a quick and easy solution. Using Friedman's Test, factor analysis, and multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) statistical procedures, this study examines the perceptions of Africa's telecommunications stakeholders on strategies to solve the technology-oriented obstacles.


The case for technology in developing regions

Brewer, E.   Demmer, M.   Du, B.   Ho, M.   Kam, M.   Nedevschi, S.   Pal, J.   Patra, R.   Surana, S.   Fall, K.  
Comput. Sci.,
California Univ., Berkeley, CA, USA

This paper appears in: Computer
Publication Date: May 2005
Volume: 38 , Issue: 6
On page(s): 25 - 38
ISSN: 0018-9162
INSPEC Accession Number:8464367
Digital Object Identifier: 10.1109/MC.2005.204
Posted online: 2005-06-13 12:56:24.0

Alongside good governance, technology is considered among the greatest enablers for improved quality of life. However, the majority of its benefits have been concentrated in industrialized nations and therefore limited to a fraction of the world's population. We believe that technology has a large role to play in developing regions, that "
First World" technology to date has been a poor fit in these areas, and that there is thus a need for technology research for developing regions. Despite the relative infancy of technology studies in developing regions, anecdotal evidence suggests that access to technology has a beneficial economic impact. Cellular telephony is probably the most visible application, but there are many others, some of which we cover in this article. The World Bank's infoDev site catalogs hundreds of information and communications technologies (ICT) projects, albeit not all successful. Most of these projects use existing off-the-shelf technology designed for the industrialized world. Although it is clear that there are large differences in assumptions related to cost, power, and usage, there has been little work on how technology needs in developing regions differ from those of industrialized nations. We argue that Western market forces continue to meet the needs of developing regions accidentally at best.


The challenges of technology research for developing regions

Brewer, E.   Demmer, M.   Ho, M.   Honicky, R.J.   Pal, J.   Plauche, M.   Surana, S.  
California Univ., Berkeley, CA, USA

This paper appears in: Pervasive Computing, IEEE
Publication Date: April-June 2006
Volume: 5 , Issue: 2
On page(s): 15 - 23
ISSN: 1536-1268
INSPEC Accession Number:8920334
Digital Object Identifier: 10.1109/MPRV.2006.40
Posted online: 2006-05-01 09:31:48.0

The work we've done in the world's developing regions has been immensely rewarding and helped make us all strong advocates for technology. The first reward is simply the experience of these countries, their surprising happiness, and the technology insights that come from being there. The deeper reward is of course actually helping people by creating new options through technology. However, we encountered a wide range of technical, environmental, and cultural challenges that are outside the scope of typical computer science research. In this article, we share some of our experiences with the hope of increasing understanding of these issues. We also hope to help others, particularly researchers from outside these regions, to avoid our mistakes. We document real challenges, try to generalize them, and suggest steps that might at least mitigate the problems.


The challenges of utilizing intelligent human-computer interface technology in South Africa and other African developing countries

Haasbroek, J.L.  
Data Fusion Syst.,
Verwoerdburg, South Africa;

This paper appears in: Systems, Man and Cybernetics, 1992., IEEE International Conference on
Publication Date: 18-21 Oct. 1992
On page(s): 821 - 826 vol.1
Meeting Date:
10/18/1992 - 10/21/1992
Chicago, IL
INSPEC Accession Number:4601882
Digital Object Identifier: 10.1109/ICSMC.1992.271524
Posted online: 2002-08-06 18:29:22.0

Labor mismatch problems frequently occur in developing countries, like
South Africa, that acquire advanced technology from developed countries. Some of these problems also occur globally. Many are, however, a result of the unique socio-cultural background of the labor force. Special attention must be paid to human factors in the local context to fully exploit the potential of advanced technology. In many cases intelligent interfaces appear to present the most viable solution. However, it is not a panacea. In certain instances a technological solution is not feasible and training may be the only alternative. Three key challenges in ensuring the effective exploitation of intelligent interface technology in South Africa and other African developing countries are described. The complexity, and consequently the risk, in the development of intelligent interface technology can be controlled in several ways, which are discussed


The impact of technology enhanced education on a developing country: a South African perspective

van Harmelen, T.   Pistorius, C.W.I.  
Inst. for Technol. Innovation, Pretoria Univ., South Africa;

This paper appears in: Technology and Society, 1997. 'Technology and society at a Time of Sweeping Change'. Proceedings., 1997 International Symposium on
Publication Date: 20-21 June 1997
On page(s): 306 - 312
Number of Pages: viii+328
Meeting Date:
06/20/1997 - 06/21/1997
INSPEC Accession Number:5856793
Digital Object Identifier: 10.1109/ISTAS.1997.658917
Posted online: 2002-08-06 21:16:51.0

Technology will have an increasingly serious impact on the way educational institutions define their markets, present their services (especially training) and also perceive other role players. In
South Africa, technological developments must be used as a multiplier to solve the escalating problem of the massification of education. At the same time it should not only account for the demographics and unfortunate recent history of the country, but also restructure the educational system to rise to the challenges of a modern country that can compete in the 21st century


The need to prepare more South African black scholars for engineering studies

Beute, N.  
Cape Technikon,
Cape Town, South Africa ;

This paper appears in: Frontiers in Education Conference, 1997. 27th Annual Conference. 'Teaching and Learning in an Era of Change'. Proceedings.
Publication Date: 5-8 Nov. 1997
Volume: 2
On page(s): 815 - 820 vol.2
Number of Pages: 3 vol. xxxvi+1624
Meeting Date:
11/05/1997 - 11/08/1997
Pittsburgh, PA
INSPEC Accession Number:5787326
Digital Object Identifier: 10.1109/FIE.1997.635978
Posted online: 2002-08-06 21:10:10.0

The number of countries that recognise the importance of engineering has grown sharply. Survival of less developed countries in the next century will undoubtedly depend on sufficient technological personnel. Increase of personnel with technological skills is a prerequisite of economic growth. The low levels of technological and scientific literacy within the population of
South Africa and other African countries cause concern. Policy statements made by African countries clearly show a growing awareness of the importance of science and technology, but the declarations need to be transformed into concrete plans. There is a challenge facing South African education departments to provide infrastructure and facilities for schools that will enable them to effectively prepare scholars for studies in engineering and to motivate and interest pupils in technology. This is especially so in previously disadvantaged communities where scholars are not exposed to science and technology in the same way as their counterparts in developed countries. The paper discusses the success that has been achieved by using a mobile exploratorium to bring interest in engineering to schools so that scholars can learn in a very effective way. Scholars are attracted to engineering, they see the need for more engineers, and they are motivated to study engineering at tertiary institutions


The reasons for under use of ICT in education: in the context of Kenya,Tanzania and Zambia

Kessy, D.   Kaemba, M.   Gachoka, M.  
University of Tumaini

This paper appears in: Technology for Education in Developing Countries, 2006. Fourth IEEE International Workshop on
Publication Date: 10-12 July 2006
On page(s): 83 - 87
Digital Object Identifier: 10.1109/TEDC.2006.31
Posted online: 2006-07-24 08:54:16.0

The Information Age is increasing the gap between the rich and poor, developed and developing countries and creating a society of information haves and havenots. Learning institutions in countries with greater powers of acquisition have easier access to new technologies and take greater advantage of them. Given this situation, it is imperative that developing countries redouble their efforts to prepare themselves to successfully meet the challenge and maximize the opportunities that the use of ICT in education offers. This can be done by developing countries tackling one after another the factors that are hindering the efficient use of ICT in education. By so doing countries will follow a divide and conquer approach which usually sees to the solving of complex national issues such as this one. This paper is an effort to share opinions on the reasons for the under use of ICT in education from
Kenya, Tanzania and Zambia.



The use of technology in education: experiences of the African Virtual University

Twinomugisha, A.  
African Virtual University

This paper appears in: Information Technology: Research and Education, 2003. Proceedings. ITRE2003. International Conference on
Publication Date: 11-13 Aug. 2003
On page(s): 506 - 511
Number of Pages: 649
INSPEC Accession Number:8037176
Digital Object Identifier: 10.1109/ITRE.2003.1270669
Posted online: 2004-03-08 14:00:59.0

In today's global information economy, the level of high skilled human resources and the adoption of technology are a measure of a country's development. While there is a clear link between technology and development, it is becoming apparent that the bridging link between the two is education. Indeed, this relationship is symbiotic or even vicious and should be exploited for a country's overall growth and development. For developing regions such as
Africa with extremely low levels of skilled human resources, the challenges involved in dramatically developing the human resources can only be overcome through increasing access to education especially at the higher or tertiary level. The African Virtual University (AVU) was created specifically for this purpose: to dramatically increase access to higher education through the innovative use of technology. However, the use of technology in Africa and other developing regions faces numerous constraints and barriers ranging from lack of infrastructure to the cultural, social and political environment. We discuss the case of the Africa Virtual University and shares some experiences in how some of the barriers and constraints to the use of technology in education have been overcome.


Towards a multimodal teaching, learning and assessment strategy at a South African university

Broere, I.   Kruger, M.  
Rand Afrikaans Univ.,
Johannesburg, South Africa

This paper appears in: Advanced Learning Technologies, 2003. Proceedings. The 3rd IEEE International Conference on
Publication Date: 9-11 July 2003
On page(s): 489
Number of Pages: xxiii+531
INSPEC Accession Number:7854243
Posted online: 2003-07-28 14:38:58.0

We explore the imperatives posed by the development of modern ICT on the teaching, learning and assessment strategy of a higher education institution. These include several strategies in different key areas that need to be put in place. Key qualities of mind, drawing on both analytical and emotional abilities in people who are star performers in a fast-paced ICT environment are discussed.


Towards Technology for Learning in a Developing World

Beynon, M.  
University of Warwick, Coventry, UK

This paper appears in: Technology for Education in Developing Countries, 2006. Fourth IEEE International Workshop on
Publication Date: 10-12 July 2006
On page(s): 88 - 92
Digital Object Identifier: 10.1109/TEDC.2006.32
Posted online: 2006-07-24 08:54:16.0

This paper addresses a significant concern in relation to educational technology to support developing countries: the impact of the developed world's notion of development upon its notion of learning. It argues that the very factors that lead us to regard a country as developed conspire to marginalize certain characteristic features of authentic learning, and naturally promote a more limited and circumscribed concept of learning ("closed learning"). Information and communications technology - when cast in its traditional role - is itself viewed as a major indicator of development, and at the same time contributes to the promotion of closed learning. To privilege closed learning is to attribute a significance to ‘understanding backwards’ that is deprecated by William James in his philosophic attitude of Radical Empiricism. Empirical Modelling is briefly reviewed as an alternative conception of technology for developing worlds that also enables ’understanding forwards’.


Wearable computing for the developing world

Starner, T.E.  
Georgia Inst. of Technol.,
Atlanta, GA, USA

This paper appears in: Pervasive Computing, IEEE
Publication Date: July-Sept. 2005
Volume: 4 , Issue: 3
On page(s): 87 - 91
ISSN: 1536-1268
INSPEC Accession Number:8578607
Digital Object Identifier: 10.1109/MPRV.2005.71
Posted online: 2005-08-15 08:23:46.0

The project was simple to describe: create a "world computer" that could assist the developing world in leapfrogging the industrial stage of economic development. The
World Center for Computing and Human Resources carried out experiments with 6502 machines such as the Apple II, Atari 400, and Atari 800 and established a pilot project in Senegal. In the end, the expense of the computers and the weight of politics limited the project. Yet, several new efforts are reexamining the concept, commonly termed information and communication technologies (ICT) for development.