Interactive Technologies Research Group

Roman Bednarik

Contact

School of Computing (Joensuu)
University of Eastern Finland
P.O. Box 111
FIN-80101 Joensuu
E-mail: bednarik (at) cs.uef.fi
Web page

Adjunct professor

Interests: Eye-tracking, HCI, Interaction Design

Description

I am a researcher and a docent at the School of Computing, University of Eastern Finland, and was a principal investigator in an Academy of Finland funded project related to gaze in multiparty distant interaction. In 2011 I was a visiting scholar at the School of Information Sciences, University of Pittsburgh.

I am interested in human behavior, learning, and interaction with computers in general. My particular interests lie in applying eye-tracking to study and support usability, human thinking and interaction. In my PhD. work I investigated and used eye-movement recording as a measure of visual attention of computer programmers during program comprehension and debugging.

Publications

  • Orlov, P.A.; Bednarik, R. ScreenMasker: An Open-source Gaze-contingent Screen Masking Environment Behavior Research Methodsbibtex
    @article{orlov2015screenmasker, title={ScreenMasker: An Open-source Gaze-contingent Screen Masking Environment}, author={Orlov, Pavel A and Bednarik, Roman}, journal={Behavior Research Methods}, pages={1--9}, year={2015}, publisher={Springer} }
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  • Jiang, X; Zheng, B.; Bednarik, R.; Atkins, M.S. Pupil responses to continuous aiming movements International Journal of Human-Computer Studies 83, 1-11
  • Eivazi,S.; Afkari, H.; Bednarik, R.; Leinonen, V.; Tukiainen, M.; Jääskeläinen, J.E. Analysis of disruptive events and precarious situations caused by interaction with neurosurgical microscope Acta neurochirurgica, 1-8
  • Bednarik, R.; Krohns, J. User-centred design practice and adoption in smaller ICT companies in Eastern Finland: an interview study Int. J. Business Information Systems 18 (3), 285-298
  • Dao, TC., Bednarik, R., Vrzakova, H. Heatmap rendering from large-scale distributed datasets using cloud computing Proceedings of the Symposium on Eye Tracking Research and Applications, 215-218bibtex
    @inproceedings{dao2014heatmap, title={Heatmap rendering from large-scale distributed datasets using cloud computing}, author={Dao, Thanh-Chung and Bednarik, Roman and Vrzakova, Hana}, booktitle={Proceedings of the Symposium on Eye Tracking Research and Applications}, pages={215--218}, year={2014}, organization={ACM} }
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  • Bulling, A., Bednarik, R. Introduction to the PETMEI special issue Journal of Eye Movement Research, 3(1)3, 1-10.bibtex
    @article{bulling2014introduction, title={Introduction to the PETMEI special issue}, author={Bulling, Andreas and Bednarik, Roman}, journal={Journal of Eye Movement Research}, volume={3}, number={1}, pages={1--10}, year={2014} }
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  • Busjahn, T., Bednarik, R., Schulte, C. What influences dwell time during source code reading?: analysis of element type and frequency as factors Proceedings of the Symposium on Eye Tracking Research and Applications, 335-338
  • Jiang, X., MS Atkins, G Tien, B Zheng, R Bednarik Pupil dilations during target-pointing respect Fitts' law Proceedings of the Symposium on Eye Tracking Research and Applications, 175-182
  • Tien, G., MS Atkins, X Jiang, B Zheng, R Bednarik Verbal gaze instruction matches visual gaze guidance in laparoscopic skills training Proceedings of the Symposium on Eye Tracking Research and Applications, 331-334
  • Jiang, X.; Atkins, M. S.; Tien, G.; Bednarik, R.; Zheng, B. Pupil Responses during Discrete Goal-directed Movements Proceedings of the 32nd annual ACM conference on Human factors in computing systems (CHI '14)pdf
  • Bednarik, R.; Busjahn, T.; Schulte, C. Eye Movements in Programming Education: Analyzing the Expert's Gaze Publications of the University of Eastern Finland. Reports and Studies in Forestry and Natural Sciences, no 18, ISBN: 978-952-61-1539-9pdf
  • Afkari, H.; Eivazi, S.; Bednarik, R.; Mäkelä, S. The Potentials for Hands-free Interaction in Micro-neurosurgery 8th Nordic Conference on Human-Computer Interactionpdf
  • Orlov, P.; Bednarik, R. Low-cost Latency Measurement System for Eye-mouse Software 8th Nordic Conference on Human-Computer Interactionpdf
  • Vrzakova, H.; Bednarik, R.; Nihei, F.; Nakano, Y. Influential statements and gaze for persuasion modeling 8th Nordic Conference on Human-Computer Interactionpdf
  • Busjahn, T., Schulte, C., Sharif, B., Begel, A., Hansen, M., Bednarik, R., ... & Antropova, M. Eye tracking in computing education Proceedings of the tenth annual conference on International computing education research (pp. 3-10)pdf
  • Malmi, L., Sheard, J., Bednarik, R., Helminen, J., Kinnunen, P., Korhonen, A., ... & Taherkhani, A. Theoretical underpinnings of computing education research: what is the evidence?. In Proceedings of the tenth annual conference on International computing education research (pp. 27-34). ACM.
  • Teresa Busjahn, Carsten Schulte, Bonita Sharif, Andrew Begel, Michael Hansen, Roman Bednarik, Paul Orlov, Petri Ihantola, Galina Shchekotova, Maria Antropova Eye tracking in computing education Proceedings of the tenth annual conference on International computing education researchbibtex
    @inproceedings{Busjahn:2014:ETC:2632320.2632344, author = {Busjahn, Teresa and Schulte, Carsten and Sharif, Bonita and Simon and Begel, Andrew and Hansen, Michael and Bednarik, Roman and Orlov, Paul and Ihantola, Petri and Shchekotova, Galina and Antropova, Maria}, title = {Eye Tracking in Computing Education}, booktitle = {Proceedings of the Tenth Annual Conference on International Computing Education Research}, series = {ICER '14}, year = {2014}, isbn = {978-1-4503-2755-8}, location = {Glasgow, Scotland, United Kingdom}, pages = {3--10}, numpages = {8}, url = {http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/2632320.2632344}, doi = {10.1145/2632320.2632344}, acmid = {2632344}, publisher = {ACM}, address = {New York, NY, USA}, keywords = {code reading, computing education, cs ed research, empirical research, eye tracking, gaze analysis, program comprehension, programming education, teaching programming}, }
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  • Bednarik, R. , Eivazi, S., and Vrzakova, H. A Computational Approach for Prediction of Problem-Solving Behavior Using Support Vector Machines and Eye-Tracking Data Eye Gaze in Intelligent User Interfacesbibtex
    @incollection{, year={2013}, isbn={978-1-4471-4783-1}, booktitle={Eye Gaze in Intelligent User Interfaces}, editor={Nakano, Yukiko I. and Conati, Cristina and Bader, Thomas}, doi={10.1007/978-1-4471-4784-8_7}, title={A Computational Approach for Prediction of Problem-Solving Behavior Using Support Vector Machines and Eye-Tracking Data}, url={http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4471-4784-8_7}, publisher={Springer London}, author={Bednarik, Roman and Eivazi, Shahram and Vrzakova, Hana}, pages={111-134}, language={English} }
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  • Vrzakova, H.; Bednarik, R. EyeCloud: Cloud Computing for Pervasive Eye-Tracking PETMEI 2013, 3rd International Workshop on Pervasive Eye Tracking and Mobile Eye-Based Interactionpdf
  • Mäkelä, S.; Bednarik, R.; Tukiainen, M. Evaluating user experience of autistic children through video observation CHI '13 Extended Abstracts on Human Factors in Computing Systems, 463-468.
  • Vrzakova, H. and Bednarik, R. Fast and Comprehensive Extension to Intention Prediction from Gaze ACM IUI 2013 Workshop on Interacting with Smart Objectspdf
  • Bednarik, R., Gowases, T., Tukiainen, M. Gaze-augmented interaction improves problem-solving: new evidence from verbal protocols. Behaviour & Information Technology 32(8)pdf
  • Vrzakova, H., and Bednarik, R. That's not norma(n/l): a detailed analysis of midas touch in gaze-based problem-solving CHI '13 Extended Abstracts on Human Factors in Computing Systems (CHI EA '13)bibtex
    @inproceedings{Vrzakova:2013:TND:2468356.2468373, author = {Vrzakova, Hana and Bednarik, Roman}, title = {That's not norma(n/l): a detailed analysis of midas touch in gaze-based problem-solving}, booktitle = {CHI '13 Extended Abstracts on Human Factors in Computing Systems}, series = {CHI EA '13}, year = {2013}, isbn = {978-1-4503-1952-2}, location = {Paris, France}, pages = {85--90}, numpages = {6}, url = {http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/2468356.2468373}, doi = {10.1145/2468356.2468373}, acmid = {2468373}, publisher = {ACM}, address = {New York, NY, USA}, keywords = {errors, gaze, intentions, midas touch}, }
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  • Erkut, C.; Bednarik, R.; Mäkelä, S.; Kleimola, J. Apps for Me, Too: Gaze and Natural Interaction Applications for Varying Cognitive Strengths on a MultitouchTable Network CHI 2013 Workshop on "Gaze Interaction in the Post-WIMP World", April 27, 2013, Paris, France.
  • Bednarik, R., Vrzakova, H., Hradis, M. What you want to do next: A novel approach for intent prediction in gaze-based interaction. In proceedings of ETRA'12, pp. 83-90.pdf
  • Patrick Jermann, Darren Gergle, Roman Bednarik, and Susan Brennan. Duet 2012: dual eye tracking in CSCW. In Proceedings of the ACM 2012 conference on Computer Supported Cooperative Work Companion (CSCW '12). ACM, New York, NY, USA, 23-24.pdf
  • Roman Bednarik. Expertise-dependent visual attention strategies develop over time during debugging with multiple code representations. International Journal of Human-Computer Studies 70, 2 (February 2012), 143-155.pdf
  • Bednarik, R., Shipilov, A. Usability of gaze-transfer in collaborative programming: How and when could it work, and some implications for research agenda. In proceedings of DUET 2012.pdf
  • Hradis, M., Eivazi, S., Bednarik, R. Voice activity detection in video mediated communication from gaze. In proceedings of ETRA'12, pp. 329-332.pdf
  • Eivazi, S., Bednarik, R., Tukiainen, M., von und zu Fraunberg, M., Leinonen, V., Jääskeläinen J. Gaze Behaviour of Expert and Novice Microneurosurgeons Differs During Observations of Tumor Removal Recordings. In proceedings of 2012 ACM ETRA'12, pp. 377-380.pdf
  • Vrzakova, H. and Bednarik, R. Hard lessons learned: mobile eye-tracking in cockpits roceedings of the 4th Workshop on Eye Gaze in Intelligent Human Machine Interaction (Gaze-In '12)bibtex
    @inproceedings{Vrzakova:2012:HLL:2401836.2401843, author = {Vrzakova, Hana and Bednarik, Roman}, title = {Hard lessons learned: mobile eye-tracking in cockpits}, booktitle = {Proceedings of the 4th Workshop on Eye Gaze in Intelligent Human Machine Interaction}, series = {Gaze-In '12}, year = {2012}, isbn = {978-1-4503-1516-6}, location = {Santa Monica, California}, pages = {7:1--7:6}, articleno = {7}, numpages = {6}, url = {http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/2401836.2401843}, doi = {10.1145/2401836.2401843}, acmid = {2401843}, publisher = {ACM}, address = {New York, NY, USA}, keywords = {cockpit, eye-tracking, issues}, }
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  • Roman Bednarik, PA Orlov Investigating the role of programmers' peripheral vision: a gaze-contingent tool and an experiment proposal PPIGbibtex
    @misc{bednarik2012investigating, title={Investigating the role of programmers’ peripheral vision: a gaze-contingent tool and an experiment proposal}, author={Bednarik, Roman and Orlov, PA}, year={2012} }
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  • Bednarik, R., Shipilov, A. and Pietinen, S. Bidirectional Gaze in Remote Computer Mediated Collaboration: Setup and Initial Results from Pair-Programming. CSCW'11 Proceedings of the ACM 2011 Conference on Computer Supported Cooperative Work.
  • Eivazi, S. and Bednarik, R. Predicting Problem-Solving Behavior and Performance Levels from Visual Attention Data. Proceedings of the 2nd Workshop on Eye Gaze in Intelligent Human Machine Interaction in Conjunction with IUI 2011 (International Conference on Intelligent User Interfaces), 9-16.
  • Gowases, T., Bednarik, R. and Tukiainen, M. Text Highlighting Improves User Experience for Reading with Magnified Displays. CHI EA'11 Proceedings of the 2011 Annual Conference Extended Abstracts on Human Factors in Computing Systems.
  • Malmi, L., Sheard, J.S., Bednarik, R., Helminen, J., Korhonen, A., Myller, N., Sorva, J and Taherkhani, A. Characterizing Research in Computing Education: A preliminary analysis of the literature. Proceedings of the International Computing Education Research Workshop, ICER'10, 3-11.
  • Pietinen, S., Bednarik, R. and Tukiainen, M. Eye-tracking in Collaborative settings: Setup and Descriptive analysis. The 5th Scandinavian Workshop on Applied Eye-Tracking, SWAET 2010, 38.
  • Eivazi, S. and Bednarik, R. Inferring Problem Solving Strategies Using Eye-Tracking: System Description and Evaluation. Koli Calling'10 Proceedings of the 10th Koli Calling International Conference on Computing Education Research.
  • Pietinen, S., Bednarik, R. and Tukiainen, M. Shared Visual Attention in Collaborative Programming: A Descriptive Analysis. ACM/IEEE 32nd International Conference on Software Engineering, ICSE 2010, Cooperative and Human Aspects of Software Engineering, CHASE 2010, Workshop at the ICSE 2010.
  • Bednarik, R., Gowases, T., and Tukiainen, M. Gaze interaction enhances problem solving: Effects of dwell-time based, gaze-augmented, and mouse interaction on problem-solving strategies and user experience. Journal of Eye Movement Research, 3(1), June 2009, pp. 1-10. pdf
  • Duveskog, M., Bednarik, R., Sutinen, R., Kemppainen, K. Designing a Story-Based Platform for HIV/AIDS Counseling with Tanzanian Children. In Proceedings of the 8th ACM International Conference on Interaction Design and Children, pp. 27-35, 2009. pdf
  • Myller, N., Bednarik, R., Sutinen, E. and Ben-Ari, M. Extending the Engagement Taxonomy: Software Visualization and Collaborative Learning. ACM Transactions on Computing Education (TOCE), 9(1), March 2009. pdf
  • Pietinen, S., Bednarik, R. and Tukiainen, M. An Exploration of Shared Visual Attention in Collaborative Programming. 21st Annual Psychology of Programming Interest Group Conference, PPIG 2009, Limerick, Ireland, 24th - 26th, June 2009. pdf
  • Randolph, J., Rogers, P., Myller, N. and Bednarik, R. Emerging Technologies for Educational Evaluation. Educational Evaluation: 21st Century Issues and Challenges, 417-442.
  • Duveskog, M., Kemppainen, K., Bednarik, R. and Sutinen, E. Designing a Story-Based Platform for HIV and AIDS Counseling with Tanzanian Children. ACM Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Interaction Design and Children, IDC 2009, 27-35.
  • Myller, N., Bednarik, R., Sutinen, E. and Ben-Ari, M. Extending the Engagement Taxonomy: Software Visualization and Collaborative Learning. ACM Transactions on Computer Education (TOCE), 1(9), 1-27.
  • Bednarik, R., Randolph, J. Studying Cognitive Processes in Computer Program Comprehension. In Hammoud, R. I. (Ed): Passive Eye Monitoring: Algorithms, Applications and Experiments, Springer, ISBN 9783540754114, pp. 373-386, 2008.
  • Bednarik, R., Tukiainen, M. Temporal Eye-Tracking Data: Evolution of Debugging Strategies with Multiple Representations. In Proceedings of the 2008 Symposium on Eye Tracking Research & Applications (Savannah, Georgia, March 26 - 28, 2008). ETRA '08. ACM, New York, NY, pp. 99-102. pdf
  • Gowases, T., Bednarik, R., and Tukiainen, M. Gaze vs. Mouse in Games: The Effects on User Experience. Proceedings of the 16th International Conference on Computers in Education (ICCE 2008), Taipei, Taiwan, October 27-31, 2008, pp. 773-778. pdf
  • Kamppuri, M., Bednarik, R, and Juntunen, A. Haasteena käytettävyys: Kotihoitoa tukevat etäpalvelut-hankkeen käytettävyystutkimus. Kajaanin ammattikorkeakoulun julkaisusarja B, Raportteja ja selvityksiä 11, 2008, ss. 39, ISBN 978-952-9853-6, ISSN 1458-915X.
  • Pietinen, S., Bednarik, R., Glotova, T., Tenhunen, V., Tukiainen, M. A Method to Study Visual Attention Aspects of Collaboration: Eye-Tracking Pair Programmers Simultaneously. In Proceedings of the 2008 Symposium on Eye Tracking Research & Applications (Savannah, Georgia, March 26 - 28, 2008). ETRA '08. ACM, New York, NY, pp. 39-42. pdf
  • Bednarik, R., Tukiainen, M. Validating the Restricted Focus Viewer: A Study Using Eye-Movement Tracking. Behavior Research Methods, 39(2), 2007, pp. 274-282. pdf
  • Bednarik, R., Tukiainen, M. Analysing and Interpreting Quantitative Eye-Tracking Data in Studies of Programming: Phases of Debugging with Multiple Representations. In Proceedings of the 19th Annual Workshop of the Psychology of Programming Interest Group (PPIG'07), Joensuu, Finland, July 2-6, 2007, pp. 158-172. pdf
  • Bednarik, R., Jansen, A. Eye-tracking and its applications in studies of programming. In Proceedings of the 19th Annual Workshop of the Psychology of Programming Interest Group (PPIG'07), Joensuu, Finland, July 2-6, 2007, pp. 255.
  • Bednarik, R., Kamppuri, M., Tedre, M., and Vesisenaho, M. Alternative to Technology-Driven Development: An Approach Based on Authentic Needs. The CHI 2007 Workshop on User-Centered Design and International Development, San Jose, California, April 28th, 2007. pdf
  • Bednarik, R. Methods to Analyze Visual Attention Strategies: Applications in the Studies of Programming. University of Joensuu, Computer Science, Dissertations 21, 2007. pdf
  • J. Sajaniemi, M. Tukiainen, R. Bednarik, S. Nevalainen (eds.) (2007). Proceedings of the 19th Annual Workshop of the Psychology of Programming Interest Group (PPIG07), Joensuu, Finland, July, 2007. International Proceedings Series 7, University of Joensuu, Department of Computer Science and Statistics.
  • Bednarik, R., Myller, N., Sutinen, E., Tukiainen, M. Analyzing Individual Differences in Program Comprehension. Technology, Instruction, Cognition and Learning (TICL), 3 (3-4), special issue on modeling and simulation, 2006, pp. 205-232.
  • Kamppuri, M., Bednarik, R., Tukiainen, M. The Expanding Focus of Design: Case Culture. In proceedings of NordiCHI 2006, The Fourth Nordic Conference on Human-Computer Interaction. Oslo, Norway, 2006, ACM Press, pp. 405-408. pdf
  • Bednarik, R., Myller, N., Sutinen, E., Tukiainen, M. Program Visualisation: Comparing Eye-tracking Patterns with Comprehension Summaries and Performance. In proceedings of the 18th Annual Workshop of the Psychology of Programming Interest Group (PPIG'06), Brighton, UK, September 7-8, 2006, pp. 68-82. pdf
  • Bednarik, R., Tukiainen, M. An Eye-tracking Methodology for Characterizing Program Comprehension. In Proceedings the 2006 Symposium on Eye Tracking Research and Applications, ETRA 2006, March 27-29, San Diego, CA, USA, ACM Press, pp. 125 - 132. pdf
  • Bednarik, R., Myller, N., Sutinen, E., Tukiainen, M. Effects of Experience on Gaze Behaviour during Program Animation. In proceedings of the 17th Annual Psychology of Programming Interest Group Workshop (PPIG'05), Brighton, UK, June 28 - July 1, 2005, pp. 49-61. pdf
  • Bednarik, R., Tukiainen, M. Effects of Display Blurring on the Behavior of Novices and Experts during Program Debugging. In CHI '05 extended abstracts on Human factors in computing systems, CHI 2005, Portland, Oregon, USA, April 2-7, 2005, ACM Press, pp. 1204-1207. pdf
  • Bednarik, R. Potentials of Eye-Movement Tracking in Adaptive Systems. In the Proceedings of the Fourth Workshop on the Evaluation of Adaptive Systems, held in conjunction with the 10th International Conference on User Modeling (UM'05), Edinburgh, UK, July 24th to 30th, 2005, pp. 1-8. pdf
  • Bednarik, R., Tukiainen, M. Visual Attention Tracking During Program Debugging. In Proceedings of NordiCHI 2004, The Third Nordic Conference on Human-Computer Interaction, October 23-27, 2004, Tampere, Finland, ACM Press, pp. 331-334. pdf
  • Bednarik, R., Gerdt, P., Miraftabi, R., Tukiainen, M.: Development of the TUP Model - Evaluating Educational Software. In Proceedings of the 4th IEEE International Conference on Advanced Learning Technologies (ICALT 2004), Joensuu, Finland, August 30 - September 1, 2004, IEEE Computer Society, pp. 699-701. pdf
  • Bednarik, R. and Tukiainen, M. Visual Attention and Representation Switching in Java Program Debugging: A Study Using Eye Movement Tracking. Proceedings of 16th Annual Workshop of the Psychology of Programming Interest Group (PPIG'04), pp. 159-169, April 2004. pdf

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University of Eastern Finland
School of Computing
P.O. Box 111 FIN-80101
Joensuu
Finland

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